Monogame Networking .. a Decade Later

Today I’ve been investigating options for integrating a multiplayer layer into my Monogame based game engine. When I first opened my browser to take a look, I popped open my bookmarks and saw a series of sites and postings circa 2012-2014 that talked exclusively about Lidgren, Raknet or ‘roll your own’. Or worse yet, there were numerous links to the now dead XNA.Networking API.

Enter Unreliability

After a bit of link purging, I began a new phase of research and stumbled upon the excellent BenchmarkNet project (https://github.com/nxrighthere/BenchmarkNet) which is a testing app for reliable UDP libraries.

Now, I must admit, I’m partial to UDP and reliable UDP in particular. This is a topic that is somewhat controversial but most high-end games are using some variation of TCP/UDP or reliable UDP. Sometimes together. Most ‘roll your own’ systems eventually become reliable UDP. I won’t rehash the arguments – but an excellent post can be found here and discussion here.

In my personal experience, TCP in game dev has given me headaches due to re-transmit issues and lack of packet prioritization. I’ll admit though that every game or project I worked on in the 2000s was fully or majority TCP – including the failed Shadowrun MMO and RunUO (Ultima Online). Times have changed though and reliable UDP is no longer a bad word (or so I hope). So let’s look at some of the primary options…

Let the games begin

Below are the latest results pulled from the 64 connected client test on BenchMarkNet’s github wiki.

As you can see, most of the libraries perform within 10% of each other except for a few particularly bad performances turned in by UNet and Lidren with issues related to memory consumption and CPU utilization respectively.

With the spread so narrow, I began to look at other things that I find important when picking out a library — source code access, license, and features. I won’t go through each one but I ruled out all but two options due to performance, license, lack of access to source, or monetization schemes I was uninterested in.

And the winner…

In the end I noticed that LiteNetLib often had the lowest CPU utilization while Neutrino was often not far behind but with a lower Bandwidth utilization. Better yet, both are OpenSource and MIT licensed! In addition to this, both libraries are exceptioally cross-platform, feature complete, have tight serialization, and work in either client-server or P2P configuration.

 

Ever Present Multiplayer – The Local Server

The approach that I’m leaning towards is the local game server pioneered by Id with Doom and Quake. This server embedded in the client allows you to code the game as if it was multiplayer no matter what while also supporting online gameplay modes. I think this approach would mesh well with the existing Entity Component System  (ECS) by jumping on the same hooks used by the AI for input and rendering. My thinking at the moment is that the new NetworkSystem can create AINodes (or a variant of them) which will represent the other players or the decisions of the AISystem. Either way, their logic remains largely the same and ‘just works’.

If my logic is sound, I can deploy to the xbox with the local server and if/when I get network API access on the xbox, I can point to a remote server and it should ‘just work’.

 

In any case, I’ll post back with my results on this whole networking refactoring!

P.S. Short aside: you might be wondering, what happened to the whole ‘migrating PC Game Engine to UWP’ project? Well, it turns out it was pretty painless. After a few minor changes (i.e., the Window class not having a Position) – I managed to get the engine up and running in under an hour. It turns out all of the planning and anguish I had spent over selecting only cross-platform libraries was worth it. This is a first…

-Jonathan